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    Clinically Relevant Examples

    Below is a list of examples from ActivEpi that consider research studies about clinically relevant health problems:

     

    Epi for Clinicians
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  • Example
    Lesson #
    Epi Topic
    Nurses Health Study
    2
    Overview of Epi
    Bogalusa Legionnaires’s disease outbreak
    2
    Overview of Epi
    Rotterdam Study on Alzheimer’s disease
    2, 3

    Overview of Epi

    3
    Epi Study Designs (Cohort Study)
    Clinical Trial on Insulin Therapy
    3
    Epi Study Designs
    Visual Display Terminals and risk for spontaneous abortion
    3
    Epi Study Designs (Cohort Study)

    Reye’s Syndrome and aspirin

    3
    Epi Study Designs (Case-control study)
    15

    Matching (individual category matching)

    Risk factors for Creutzfeld- Jacob disease (CJD)
    3
    Epi Study Designs (Case-control study)
    Cigarette Smoking and Peripheral Vascular Disease
    3
    Epi Study Designs (Cross-sectional study)

    Parkinson’s disease rate in Rotterdam Study

    4
    Measures of Disease Frequency (incidence rate)

    Smoking and lung cancer

    5

    Measures of Effect (risk ratio, odds ratio)

    Quit smoking and CHD survival

    5

    Measures of Effect, Potential Impact (risk ratio)

    6

    Potential Impact (risk difference, etiologic fraction)

    12

    Simple Analysis (statistical inference)

    CDC study of foodborne outbreak at resort in Haiti
    5

    Measures of Effect (exposure odds ratio)

    12

    Simple Analyis (statistical inference)

    Personality type and CHD prevalence

    5

    Measure of Effect (prevalence odds ratio)

    13

    Control of Variables (options for control)

    Genetic factors and risk of bone fractures from osteoporosis in Rotterdam study

    5
    Measures of Effect (risk ratio vs. odds ratio)

    Borderline cholesterol and mortality rate in Chicago study

    5
    Measures of Effect (rate ratio)
    6

    Potential Impact (rate difference, etiologic fraction)

    12

    Simple Analysis (statistical inference)

    Example
    Lesson #
    Epi Topic

    B-antagonist or diuretic treatment for mild hypertension and risk for stroke in British Med. Res Council study

    6
    Potential Impact (number needed to treat)

    Subclinical hypthyroidism and incidence of MI in Rotterdam study

    6
    Potential Impact (etiologic fraction)

    Measles vaccination and incidence of measles in Texarkana study

    6
    Potential Impact (prevented fraction)

    Smoking and bone cancer in hospital –based study

    7
    Validity (Berkson’s selection bias)

    Health effects of Agent Orange Exposure in Vietnam War veterans

    7
    Validity (Information bias)

    L-tryptophan supplements and EMS

    8

    Selection Bias (preferential diagnosis)

    Estrogen use and Endometrial cancer

    8

    Selection Bias (choice of controls)

    15

    Matching (pair matching, McNemar analysis, logistic regression)

    Condom usage and STD prevention

    9

    Selection Bias (choice of controls)

    Diagnosing deep vein thrombosis (DVT) using ultrasound

    9
    Information bias (diagnostic testing, predictive value)

    Toxic chemical exposure and lung cancer risk

    10
    Confounding (risk ratio, by smoking)
    14

    Stratified Analysis (Mantel-Haenszel test. adjusted risk ratio)

    Alcohol consumption and oral cancer

    10
    Confounding (odds ratio, by age)
    14

    Stratified Analysis (adjusted odds ratio)

    Alcohol consumption and bladder cancer

    10
    Confounding (odds ratio, by race)

    Atherosclerosis and Alzheimer’s disease in Rotterdam study

    10
    Confounding (odds ratio, by genetic make-up)

    Diabetes Mellitus and CHD risk

    13

    Controlling Variables (logistic model, risk prediction)

    Antibiotic resistance- Risk factors for MRSA in Atlanta hospital study

    14
    Stratified analysis (stratum-specific analyes)

    Obesity and all-cause mortality

    14

    Stratified analysis (person-time data)

    Cholesterol level and CHD risk in Evans County study

    14
    14 Stratified analysis (3 exposure catergories, logistic Regression)

    History of abortion and tubal pregnancy

    15
    Matching (R-to-1 matched analysis)

    Job assignment and chronic back pain

    15
    Matching (Analysis of frequency matched data)