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WorldWide Spread of Clones

Below is a list of the clones 1-26 described by the PMEN and the countries they have been identified in (by publication)

        Spain23F-1

EUROPE:

SPAIN (Munoz et al 1991 J Infect Dis 164:302-306; Coffey et al 1991 Mol Microbiol 5:2255-2260; Coffey et al 1996 Microbiol 142:2747-2757; Fenoll et al 1998 J Clin Microbiol 36:3447-3454; Coffey et al 1998 Microbial Drug Resist 4:51-55; Enright et al 1999 J Clin Microbiol 37:3210-3216; Ramirez and Tomasz 1999 Microbial Drug Resist 5:241-246; Zhou et al 2000 J Clin Microbiol 38:977-986; McGee et al 2002 J Antimicrob Chemother 49:173-176; http://spneumoniae.mlst.net/)

FRANCE (Lefevre et al 1995 Eur J Clin Micrbiol Infect Dis 14:491-497; Doit et al 1996 J Infect Dis 174:520-528; Ferroni et al 1996 J Clin Microbiol 34:2707-2712; Moissenet et al 1997 J Clin Microbiol 35:298-301; Fenoll et al 1998 J Clin Microbiol 36:3447-3454; Doit et al 1999 Antimicrob Agents Chemother 43:1480-1483; McGee et al 2002 J Antimicrob Chemther 49:173-179)

ICELAND (Kristinsson 1995 Microbial Drug Resist 1:121-125; Ramirez and Tomasz 1999 Microbial Drug Resist 5:241-246; Sa-Leao et al 2002 J Infect Dis 186:966-975; http://spneumoniae.mlst.net/)

PORTUGAL (Vaz Pato et al 1995 Microbial Drug Resist 1:59-69; Sa-Leao et al 2000 J Clin Microbiol 38:4137-4144; Sa-Leao et al 2000 J Infect Dis 182:1153-1160)

ITALY (Marchese et al 1998 J Clin Microbiol 36:2944-2949; Ramirez and Tomasz 1999 Microbial Drug Resist 5:241-246; Dicuonzo et al 2000 J Clin Microbiol 40:3660-3665)

POLAND (Overweg et al 1999 J Clin Microbiol 37:1739-1745; http://spneumoniae.mlst.net/)

BULGARIA (Setchanova & Tomasz 1999 J Clin Microbiol 37:638-648)

GREECE (Bogaert et al 2000 J Clin Microbiol 38:4361-4366; Tsolia et al Microbial Drug Resist 3:219-226)

THE NETHERLANDS (Hermans et al 1997 J Infect Dis 175:1413-1422; Sluijter et al 1998 J Clin Microbiol 36:2248-2253)

GERMANY (Reichmann et al 1995 J Med Microbiol 43:377-385; http://spneumoniae.mlst.net/)

CROATIA (Tarasi et al 1995 Microbial Drug Resist 1:169-176)

FINLAND (Sibold et al 1992 Infect Immun 60:4119-4126)

BELGIUM (Hoefnagels-Schuermans et al 1999 Eur J Clin Micrbiol Infect Dis 18:120-125)

CZECH REPUBLIC (http://spneumoniae.mlst.net/)

UNITED KINGDOM (Coffey et al 1991 Mol Microbiol 5:2255-2260; http://spneumoniae.mlst.net/)

N.IRELAND (McGee et al 2002 J Antimicrob Chemother 49:173-176)

UNITED STATES OF AMERICA:
(Munoz et al 1991 J Infect Dis 164:302-306; Coffey et al 1991 Mol Microbiol 5:2255-2260; McDougal et al 1992 Antimicrobial Agents Chemother 36:2176-2184; Barnes et al 1995 J Infect Dis 171:890-896; Nesin et al 1998 J Infect Dis 177:707-713; Corso et al 1998 Microbial Drug Resist 5:325-337; Ramirez and Tomasz 1999 Microbial Drug Resist 5:241-246; Gherardi et al 2000 J Infect Dis 181:216-229; Luna et al J Clin Microbiol 2000 38:1575-1580; McEllisterm et al J Clin Microbiol 38:4367-4372; Roberts et al 2001 Microbial Drug resist 7:137-152; Quale et al 2002 Emerg Infect Dis 8:594-597; http://spneumoniae.mlst.net/)

CANADA:
(Louie et al 1999 J Infect Dis 179:892-900; Greenberg et al 2002 J Clin Microbiol 40:68-74)

SOUTH AMERICA:

COLOMBIA (Castaneda et al 1998 Microbial Drug Resist 4:233-239; Claudia Vela et al 2001 Microbial Drug Resist 7:153-164)

ARGENTINA (Rossi et al 1998 Microbial Drug Resist 4:225-231)

CHILE (Gherardi et al 1999 J Clin Microbiol 37:3725-3730)

MEXICO (Echaniz-Aviles 1998 Microbial Drug Resist 4:241-246)

URUGUAY (Camou et al 1998 Microbial Drug Resist 4:219-224)

BRAZIL (Wolf et al 2000 J Antimicrob Chemotherapy 46:757-765)

ASIA:

TAIWAN (Shi et al 1998 J Clin Microbiol 36:3514-3519; Song et al 1999 Clin Infect Dis 28:1206-1211; Song et al 2001 Clin Infect Dis 32:1463-1469. http://spneumoniae.mlst.net/)

KOREA (Tarasi et al 1997 Microbial Drug Resist 3:105-109; McGee et al 1997 Microbial Drug Resist 3:253-257; Song et al 1999 Clin Infect Dis 28:1206-1211; Ramirez and Tomasz 1999 Microbial Drug Resist 5:241-246; Song et al 2000 J Clin Microbiol 38:1641-1644; Song et al 2001 Clin Infect Dis 32:1463-1469)

THAILAND (Dejsirilert et al 1999 J Clin Microbiol 37:1832-1838; Song et al 1999 Clin Infect Dis 28:1206-1211; Song et al 2001 Clin Infect Dis 32:1463-1469)

HONG KONG (IP et al 1999 J Clin Microbiol 372834-2839; Ho et al 2001 J Antimicrob Chemother 48:659-665; Ho et al 2001 Emerg Infect Dis 7:906-908; IP et al 2002 J Clin Microbiol 40:1522-1525)

JAPAN (Song et al 1999 Clin Infect Dis 28:1206-1211)

SINGAPORE (Song et al 1999 Clin Infect Dis 28:1206-1211)

MALAYSIA (Song et al 1999 Clin Infect Dis 28:1206-1211; Song et al 2001 Clin Infect Dis 32:1463-1469)

SRI LANKA (Song et al 2001 Clin Infect Dis 32:1463-1469)

VIETNAM (Song et al 2001 Clin Infect Dis 32:1463-1469; Bogaert et al 2002 J clin Microbiol 40:3903-3908; Parry et al 2002 Antimicrob Agents Chemother 46:3512-3517; http://spneumoniae.mlst.net/)

AFRICA:

SOUTH AFRICA (Sibold et al 1992 Infect Immun 60:4119-4126; Martin et al 1992 EMBO J 11:3831-3836; McDougal et al 1992 Antimicrobial Agents Chemother 36:2176-2184; Klugman et al 1994 Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 13:171-174)

AUSTRALIA:
(http://www.mlst.net/)

        Spain6B-2

EUROPE:

SPAIN (Soares et al 1993 J Infect Dis 168:158-163; Coffey et al 1996 Microbiol 142:2747-2757; Fenoll et al 1998 J Clin Microbiol 36:3447-3454; Enright et al 1999 J Clin Microbiol 37:3210-3216; Zhou et al 2000 J Clin Microbiol 38:977-986; http://spneumoniae.mlst.net/)

FRANCE (Lefervre et al 1995 Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 14:491-497; Doit et al 1996 J Infect Dis 174:520-528; Doit et al 1999 Antimicrob Agents Chemother 43:1480-1483)

THE NETHERLANDS (http://spneumoniae.mlst.net/)

ICELAND (Soares et al 1993 J Infect Dis 168:158-163; Kristinsson 1995 Microbial Drug Resist 1:121-125; Vilhelmson et al 2000 J Clin Microbiol 38:1375-1381;Sa-Leao et al 2002 J Infect Dis 186:966-975; http://spneumoniae.mlst.net/)

PORTUGAL (Sa-Leao et al 2001 J Infect Dis 184:1206-1210)

GERMANY (Reichmann et al 1995 J Med Microbiol 43:377-385)

FINLAND (Sibold et al 1992 Infect Immun 60:4119-4126)

UNITED KINGDOM (Soares et al 1993 J Infect Dis 168:158-163)

UNITED STATES OF AMERICA:
(Versalovic et al 1993 J Infect Dis 167:850-856; Harakeh et al 1994 J Clin Microbiol 32:3046-3048; Gherardi et al 2000 J Infect Dis 181:216-229; McEllistrem et al 2000 J Clin Microbiol 38:4367-4372; http://spneumoniae.mlst.net/)

SOUTH AMERICA:

COLOMBIA (Claudia Vela et al 2001 Microbial Drug Resist 7:153-164)
CHILE (Gherardi et al 1999 J Clin Microbiol 37:3725-3730)

BRAZIL (Wolf et al 2000 J Antimicrob Chemother 46:757-765)

ASIA:

TAIWAN (Shi et al 1998 J Clin Microbiol 36:3514-3519; http://spneumoniae.mlst.net/)

HONG KONG (IP et al 1999 J Clin Microbiol 37:2834-2839; Ip et al 2002 J Clin Microbiol 40:1522-1525)

AUSTRALIA:
(http://spneumoniae.mlst.net/)

        Spain9V-3

EUROPE:

SPAIN (Coffey et al 1991 Mol Microbiol 5:2255-2260; Enright et al 1999 J Clin Microbiol 37:3210-3216; Zhou et al 2000 J Clin Microbiol 38:977-986; http://spneumoniae.mlst.net/)

FRANCE: (Lefevre et al 1995 Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 14:491-497; Gasc et al 1995 Microbiol 141:623-627; Doit et al 1996 J Infect Dis 174:520-528; Moissenet et al 1997 J Clin Microbiol 35:298-301; Doit et al 1999 Antimicrob Agents Chemother 43:1480-1483; McGee et al 2002 J Antimicrob Chemother 49:173-179; http://spneumoniae.mlst.net/)

PORTUGAL (Sa-Leao et al 2000 J Clin Microbiol 38:4137-4144; Sa-Leao et al 2000 J Infect Dis 182:1153-1160)

ITALY (Marchese et al 1998 J Clin Microbiol 36:2944-2949; Dicuonzo et al 2002 40:3660-3665)

POLAND (Overweg et al 1999 J Clin Microbiol 37:1739-1745; http://spneumoniae.mlst.net/)

BULGARIA (Setchanova & Tomasz 1999 J Clin Microbiol 37:638-648)

SWEDEN (Melander et al 1998 Microbial Drug Resist 4:71-78; Kamme et al 1999 Microbial Drug Resist 5:31-36)

GREECE (Tsolia et al 2002 Microbial Drug Resist 3:219-226; Bogaert et al 2000 J Clin Microbiol 38:4361-4366)

THE NETHERLANDS (Hermans et al 1997 J Infect Dis 175:1413-1422; http://spneumoniae.mlst.net/)

GERMANY (Reichmann et al 1995 J Med Microbiol 43:377-385)

DENMARK (http://spneumoniae.mlst.net/)

CZECH REPUBLIC (http://spneumoniae.mlst.net/)

UNITED KINGDOM (Coffey et al 1991 Mol Microbiol 5:2255-2260; Hall et al 1996 J Clin Microbiol 34:853-859; http://spneumoniae.mlst.net/)

N.IRELAND (McGee et al 2002 J Antimicrob Chemother 49:173-176)

UNITED STATES OF AMERICA:
(Corso et al 1998 Microbial Drug Resist 4:325-337; Gherardi et al 2000 J Infect Dis 181:216-229; McEllistrem et al 2000 J Clin Microbiol 38:4367-4372; Roberts et al 2001 Microbial Drug Resist 7:137-152; Quale et al 2002 Emerg Infect Dis 8:594-597)

CANADA:
(Louie et al 1999 J Infect Dis 179:892-900; Greenberg et al 2002 J Clin Microbiol 40:68-74; http://spneumoniae.mlst.net/)

SOUTH AMERICA:

COLOMBIA (Castaneda et al 1998 Microbial Drug Resist 4:233-239; Ramirez and Tomasz 1999 Microbial Drug Resist 5:241-246; Claudia Vela et al 2001 Microbial Drug Resist 7:153-164)

ARGENTINA (Rossi et al 1998 Microbial Drug Resist 4:225-231; Ramirez and Tomasz 1999 Microbial Drug Resist 5:241-246)

CHILE (Gherardi et al 1999 J Clin Microbiol 37:3725-3730)

MEXICO (Echaniz-Aviles 1998 Microbial Drug Resist 4:241-246; Ramirez and Tomasz 1999 Microbial Drug Resist 5:241-246)

URUGUAY (Camou et al 1998 Microbial Drug Resist 4:219-224; www.mlst.net)

BRAZIL (Brandileone et al 1998 Microbial Drug Resist 4:209-217)

ASIA:

TAIWAN (Shi et al 1998 J Clin Microbiol 36:3514-3519)

KOREA (McGee et al 1997 Microbial Drug Resist 3:253-257)

THAILAND (Dejsirilert et al 1999 J Clin Micrbiol 37:1832-1838)

        Tennessee23F-4     

EUROPE:

GERMANY (http://spneumoniae.mlst.net/)

UNITED STATES OF AMERICA:
(McDougal et al 1995 Antimicrob Agents Chemother 39:2282-2288; Gherardi et al 2000 J Infect Dis 181:216-229; McEllistrem et al 2000 J Clin Microbiol 38:4367-4372; Robinson et al 2001 J Infect Dis 183:1501-1507; Richter et al 2002 Clin Infect Dis 34:330-339; http://spneumoniae.mlst.net/)

        Spain14-5

EUROPE:

SPAIN (Coffey et al 1996 Microbiology 142:2747-2757; Zhou et al 2000 J Clin Microbiol 38:977-986; http://spneumoniae.mlst.net/)

        Hungary19A-6

EUROPE:

HUNGARY (Marton et al 1991 J Infect Dis 163:542-548; Reichmann et al 1996 Microbial Drug Resist 2:177-181; http://spneumoniae.mlst.net/)

CZECH REPUBLIC/SLOVAKIA (Figueiredo et al 1995 Microbial Drug Resist 1:71-78)

        South Africa19A-7

AFRICA:

SOUTH AFRICA (Smith and Klugman 1997 Microbial Drug Resist 3:385-389; http://spneumoniae.mlst.net/)

        South Africa6B-8

AFRICA:

SOUTH AFRICA (Smith and Klugman 1997 Microbial Drug Resist 3:385-389; http://spneumoniae.mlst.net/)

        England14-9

EUROPE:

UNITED KINGDOM (Hall et al 1996 J Clin Microbiol 34:853-859; http://spneumoniae.mlst.net/)

PORTUGAL (Sa-Leao et al 2001 J Infect Dis 184:1206-1210; http://spneumoniae.mlst.net/)

ITALY (Dicuonzo et al 2002 J Clin Microbiol 40:3660-3605; http://spneumoniae.mlst.net/)

GREECE (Tsolia et al 2002 Microbial Drug Resist 3:219-226)
BELGIUM (http://spneumoniae.mlst.net/)

GERMANY (http://spneumoniae.mlst.net/)

UNITED STATES OF AMERICA:
(Gherardi et al 2000 J Infect Dis 2000 181:216-229)

AUSTRALIA:
(http://spneumoniae.mlst.net/)

SOUTH AMERICA:

ARGENTINA (Sa-Leao et al 2001 J Infect Dis 184:1206-1210; http://spneumoniae.mlst.net/)

        Czech Republic14-10

EUROPE:

CZECH REPUBLIC/SLOVAKIA (Figueiredo et al 1995 Microbial Drug Resist 1:71-78; http://spneumoniae.mlst.net/)

SOUTH AMERICA:

COLOMBIA (Claudia Vela et al 2001 Microbial Drug Resist 7:153-164)

         Czech Republic19A-11

EUROPE:

CZECH REPUBLIC/SLOVAKIA (Figueiredo et al 1995 Microbial Drug Resist 1:71-78; http://spneumoniae.mlst.net/)

        Finland6B-12

EUROPE:

FINLAND (Sibold et al 1992 Infect and Immun 60:4119-4126; http://spneumoniae.mlst.net/)

PORTUGAL (Sa-Leao et al 2001 J Infect Dis 184:1206-1210)

         South Africa19A-13

AFRICA:

SOUTH AFRICA (Smith and Klugman 1997 Microbial Drug Resist 3:385-389; http://spneumoniae.mlst.net/)

UNITED STATES OF AMERICA:
(http://spneumoniae.mlst.net/)

        Taiwan19F-14

ASIA:

TAIWAN (Shi et al 1998 J Clin Microbiol 36:3514-3519; Siu et al 2002 Microbial Drug resist 8:201-208; http://spneumoniae.mlst.net/)

HONG KONG (Ip et al 2002 J Clin Microbiol 40:1522-1525)

VIETNAM (Bogaert et al 2002 J Clin Microbiol 40:3903-3908; http://spneumoniae.mlst.net/)

AFRICA:

SOUTH AFRICA (McGee et al 2001 Antimicrobial Agents Chemother 45:1595-1598)

EUROPE:

UNITED KINGDOM (http://spneumoniae.mlst.net/)

GREECE (http://spneumoniae.mlst.net/)

UNITED STATES OF AMERICA:
(Robinson et al 2001 J Infect Dis 183:1501-1507; Richter et al 2002 Clin Infect Dis 34:330-339)

AUSTRALIA:
(http://spneumoniae.mlst.net/)

        Taiwan23F-15

ASIA:

TAIWAN (Shi et al 1998 J Clin Microbiol 36:3514-3519; http://spneumoniae.mlst.net/)

EUROPE:

ITALY (Dicuonzo et al 2002 J Clin Microbiol 40:3660-3665; http://spneumoniae.mlst.net/)

        Poland23F-16

EUROPE:

POLAND (Overweg et al 1999 J Clin Microbiol 37:1739-1745; http://spneumoniae.mlst.net/)

         Maryland6B-17

UNITED STATES OF AMERICA:
(Richter et al 2002 Clin Infect Dis 34:330-339; http://spneumoniae.mlst.net/)

        Tennessee14-18

UNITED STATES OF AMERICA:
(Richter et al 2002 Clin Infect Dis 34:330-339; http://spneumoniae.mlst.net/)

         Colombia5-19

SOUTH AMERICA:

COLOMBIA (Tamayo et al 1999 J Clin Microbiol 37:2337-2342; http://spneumoniae.mlst.net/)

EUROPE:

UNITED KINGDOM (http://spneumoniae.mlst.net/)

        Poland6B-20

EUROPE:

POLAND (Overweg et al 1999 J Clin Microbiol 37:1739-1745; http://spneumoniae.mlst.net/)

PORTUGAL (Sa-Leao et al 2001 J Infect Dis 184:1206-1210; http://spneumoniae.mlst.net/)

BULGARIA (Sa-Leao et al 2001 J Infect Dis 184:1206-1210; http://spneumoniae.mlst.net/)

ITALY (Dicuonzo et al 2002 J Clin Microbiol 40:3660-3665; http://spneumoniae.mlst.net/)

        Portugal19F-21

EUROPE:

PORTUGAL (Sa-Leao et al 2000 J Infect Dis 182:1153-1160; http://spneumoniae.mlst.net/)

SPAIN (http://spneumoniae.mlst.net/)

ICELAND (Sa-Leao et al 2002 J Infect Dis 186:966-975; http://spneumoniae.mlst.net/)

        Greece6B-22

EUROPE:

GREECE (Syrogiannopoulos et al 1997 Clin Infect Dis 25:188-194; http://spneumoniae.mlst.net/)

ICELAND (Sa-Leao et al 2000 J Infect Dis 182:1153-1160; Sa-Leao et al 2001 J Infect Dis 184:1206-1210)

ISRAEL (Sa-Leao et al 2000 J Infect Dis 182:1153-1160; Sa-Leao et al 2001 J Infect Dis 184:1206-1210)

PORTUGAL (Sa-Leao et al 2000 J Infect Dis 182:1153-1160; Sa-Leao et al 2001 J Infect Dis 184:1206-1210)

UNITED STATES OF AMERICA:
(Sa-Leao et al 2000 J Infect Dis 182:1153-1160)

        N.Carolina6A-23

UNITED STATES OF AMERICA:
(Richter et al 2002 Clin Infect Dis 34:330-339; http://spneumoniae.mlst.net/)

        Utah35B-24

UNITED STATES OF AMERICA:
(Richter et al 2002 Clin Infect Dis 34:330-339; http://spneumoniae.mlst.net/)

        Sweden15A-25

EUROPE:

SWEDEN (Sa-Leao et al 2000 J Infect Dis 182:1153-1160; http://spneumoniae.mlst.net/)

PORTUGAL (Sa-Leao et al 2000 J Infect Dis 182:1153-1160; http://spneumoniae.mlst.net/)

SPAIN (http://spneumoniae.mlst.net/)

ITALY (Dicuonzo et al 2002 J Clin Microbiol 40:3660-3665; http://spneumoniae.mlst.net/)

 

Colombia23F-26

SOUTH AMERICA:

COLOMBIA (Sa-Leao et al 2000 J Infect Dis 182:1153-1160; http://spneumoniae.mlst.net/)

 BRAZIL (Sa-Leao et al 2000 J Infect Dis 182:1153-1160)

 EUROPE:

 PORTUGAL (Sa-Leao et al 2000 J Infect Dis 182:1153-1160; http://spneumoniae.mlst.net/)

 ICELAND (Sa-Leao et al 2000 J Infect Dis 182:1153-1160)

 NORWAY (http://spneumoniae.mlst.net/)