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History of Project ICARE

Phase V (2005-2007)
Phase IV (2002-2004)
Phase III (1998-2000)
Phase II (1996-1997)
Phase I (1995)

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Project ICARE
Intensive Care Antimicrobial Resistance Epidemiology

Project ICARE, which ended in September, 2008, was a joint effort by the Departments of Epidemiology and Global Health at the Rollins School of Public Health of Emory University (RSPH) with the Division of Healthcare Quality Promotion at Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) to study antimicrobial resistance in the healthcare system. The data generated from Project ICARE are intended to assist microbiologists, clinicians, epidemiologists, and infection control practitioners in understanding and controlling antimicrobial resistance in the health care system. Project ICARE was funded by multiple sources from industry and nonprofit professional groups.

Project ICARE Phases

Phase V of Project ICARE focused on continued collection of fresh bacterial isolates, epidemiologic analyses of integron-related resistance, analysis of the relative impact of different molecular determinants of resistance in multi-drug resistant gram-negative bacilli, and study of susceptibility testing problems related to the spread of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains in both healthcare and community settings.

Phase IV of Project ICARE focused on laboratory studies to evaluate current resistance detection methods, define mechanisms of resistance present in the isolates collected, and use those isolates to better define testing methods to detect resistance. More detailed description of results are given on the summary page.

Phases I-III of Project ICARE (links above left) included analyses of antimicrobial use and resistance and laboratory studies evaluating resistance detection and the mechanisms of resistance present in the bacteria collected. For background on antimicrobial resistance and how it relates to Project ICARE,click here.

The Project ICARE Central Laboratory exists within the Rollins School of Public Health of Emory University in Atlanta, Georgia, USA. The School also provides expertise and resources for data management and analysis. The Division of Healthcare Quality Promotion at CDC houses the National Reference Laboratory for antimicrobial susceptibility testing. This laboratory performs antimicrobial susceptibility testing by NCCLS methods for laboratories across the United States and also uses DNA sequencing and other techniques to detect new and unusual mechanisms of bacteria resistance.


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